EOS, or Electrical Overstress, is any electrical stress that exceeds any of the specified absolute maximum ratings (AMR) of a product.
It is important to discuss because many products are damaged this way.
This article includes case studies and 3 approaches to handle those requests.
The most common ESD protection for I/Os consist of two diodes. To cover all the different stress combinations a rail clamp is required. In this article we discuss another option. For many interfaces a local ESD protection clamp is actually a better option.
The conventional dual diode approach is used a lot as a simple ESD protection solution for all types of interfaces. However sometimes it causes issues.