A growing number of semiconductor applications are turning to 2.5D and 3D integration. Integrating multiple dies in a single package can reduce total power consumption, reduce required PCB area, enhance performance and it can speed up development cycles.
It is important to consider Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection early in the design phase. The 2.5D and 3D hybrid integration introduces new ESD challenges but also opportunities.
Datacenter companies are turning to optical communication to increase the bandwidth of communication between servers. Thanks to several breakthroughs in the last decades the so-called Silicon Photonics solutions promise higher communication speed and lower power consumption at a reduced cost. This article discusses the need for custom ESD protection for optical communication interfaces.
The most common ESD protection for I/Os consist of two diodes. To cover all the different stress combinations a rail clamp is required. In this article we discuss another option. For many interfaces a local ESD protection clamp is actually a better option.